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B-) by Minnesota Scots • "Scots and the English-Part 10"

The English and Scottish undertakers were virtually equal partners in the Plantation scheme in terms of the acreages of the lands they received: 81,500 and 81,000, respectively. Together they were intended to be part of one “British Plantation” and it was hoped that “some course may be taken that the English and Scottish may be placed both near and woven one with another”. It was anticipated that markets and assizes would be places where English and Scots would meet and interact.
For the most part, however, the English and Scottish settlers lived largely separate lives. On many of the Scottish-owned estates, especially in the Foyle Valley, English tenants were virtually unknown. The major exception to this was in County Cavan where there was a much closer ratio of English to Scots on the Scottish-owned estates. On Sir James Craig’s estate there were actually more English settlers than Scots. On the other hand, many Scots lived and farmed successfully on English-owned estates, in some instances making up the majority of the British tenants. Though undoubtedly there were personal animosities between Englishmen and Scots, on the whole the relationships between the two groups were reasonably good.
Disputes did of course arise. In 1614 Lord Audley, an undertaker in the barony of Omagh, claimed that some Scottish settlers had tried to take his life following an accusation the he had spoken disparagingly of the Scottish nation. Audley denied this and added that not only did he have English tenants on his estate. “I have so many more of the Scotchmen besides which sheweth no malice, but my love and good opinion towards that nation and we all agree very well”.
In another instance from 1622 the English settlers on Sir Archibald Acheson’s estate in County Cavan complained of being badly treated by the landlord’s agent. However, these incidents do not appear to have been commonplace. It might be noted that there was a degree of intermarriage between English and Scots, especially among the landed elite. One interesting aside to the cultural and linguistic hiccups that could arise relates to the fact that in 1624 the Scots asked that an additional clerk of the Council in Dublin be appointed who could read Scottish handwriting as they were concerned that their petitions were either being misunderstood or ignored. A Scottish clerk was duly appointed.

Reprinted completely from the pamphlet “The Story of the Scots, The Plantation of Ulster 1610-1630", Ulster-Scots Agency, Board of Ulster-Scots.

[x]keywords: Scotland, clans, history, periodical, diaspora
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# 47 - Ulster Scots • by Minnesota Scots - 02/28/2015 - 10:33 - - Minnesota - USA
B-) by Minnesota Scots • "The Management of Scottish Estates-Part 9"

If a grantee of Plantation land was going to benefit financially from his undertaking he would have to manage his estate effectively to derive and income from it. He was not free to choose how to do this as he pleased but was expected to follow specific guidelines. Under the terms of their land grants, the undertakers were required to divide up their estates among tenants in a certain way. Furthermore, tenants were to be issued with written deeds that gave them security of tenure.
Relatively few of the undertakers fulfilled these conditions precisely. Some did not have enough British tenants to lease farms to, while others did not make out proper written leases to their tenants creating uncertainty among them. However, a number of the Scottish landlords did take care to ensure that their tenants were given proper leases for their holdings.
Agriculture was central to the rural economy. Crops – usually barley, oats and wheat – were grown and harvested and cattle and a few sheep were reared. The authorities were anxious that English agricultural practices were followed, hence the comment “I find here good tillage after the English manner” made by captain Pynnar about William Baillie’s estate in County Cavan. However, Pynnar lamented the lack of endeavour by the English and Irish to practice food husbandry and pursue agriculture seriously. He wrote: “were it not for the Scottish Tenants, which do plough in many places of the County, those Parts may starve”.
Scottish landlords also played an important role in introducing livestock to their estates. These were, in the main, cattle and horses, the later being important for ploughing. On the proportion of Sir James Cunningham in east Donegal there were by 1611 some 44 head of cattle “one plow of garrons and some tillage last harvest”. Lord Ochiltree brought 50 cows and 60 young heifers out of Scotland which were landed at Island Magee in County Antrim and then driven overland to east Tyrone.
Also part of the infrastructure of the estates were buildings such as mills, forges and barns. Most of the undertakers built mills on their estates. These were mainly corn mills though there were also a number of tuck mills for “fulling” woolen cloth. Uniquely, the Earl of Abercorn had built a “great brew house” in Strabane by 1611.

Reprinted completely from the pamphlet “The Story of the Scots, The Plantation of Ulster 1610-1630", Ulster-Scots Agency, Board of Ulster-Scots.

[x]keywords: Scotland, clans, history, periodical, diaspora
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# 46 - Ulster Scots • by Minnesota Scots - 02/09/2015 - 21:22 - - Minnesota - USA
B-) by Minnesota Scots • "Towns and Villages-Part 8"

Despite the Scottish preference for dispersed rural settlement, more than a dozen towns and villages were founded by Scots in the officially planted counties in the 1610s and 1620s. The largest of these was Strabane which received its charter in 1613. In 1622 it was noted that there were more than one hundred houses in the town and its inhabitants were “very industrious and do daily beautify their town with new buildings, strong and defensible”. Strabane was in fact the third largest town in the officially planted counties after Londonderry and Coleraine.
Among the reasons why Strabane prospered was its location, serving a large hinterland in northwest Ulster, and having direct access to the sea via the River Foyle. It had a small but important merchant community, trading directly with Scotland as well as English ports such as Bristol and Chester and even France. There was a small Scottish element in the merchant community in Londonderry.
Other Scottish settlements were either inland or were relatively isolated and in an area where the natural resources were more limited. In such places it was difficult to sustain a significant residential merchant element. For example, Killybegs is southwest County Donegal was primarily a Scottish town, but was described in 1637 as “wild and not inhabited with any men of power or quality and frequented especially in time of fishing by Redshanks and diver of Scotch Isles and other unruly and wild people that will do no right that is not enjoined on them by force”.
Other Scottish settlements included Lisnaskea, Stewartstown, Clancarny (Markethill) – all founded by chief undertakers – Newtowncunningham and Ramelton. Further down the scale were Ballymagorry, Killeshandra and Newtownstewart. In general these settlements were populated by different tradesmen providing services to the immediate settler community.
In the absence of maps or plans, the layout of these towns and villages is almost impossible to determine. Some efforts at planning can be detected. For example, at Ramelton, Sir William Stewart had built a paved street between the castle and the church. A street also ran directly between the castle and church in Strabane, though in this case it was not the main street of the town. By 1622 the settlement at Donboy on John Cunningham’s lands in Portlough comprised 40 thatched houses and cabins with a “stone causey in the middle”.

Reprinted completely from the pamphlet “The Story of the Scots, The Plantation of Ulster 1610-1630", Ulster-Scots Agency, Board of Ulster-Scots.

[x]keywords: Scotland, clans, history, periodical, diaspora
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# 45 - Ulster Scots • by Minnesota Scots - 01/15/2015 - 15:39 - - Minnesota - USA
B-) by Minnesota Scots • "Patterns of Settlement-Part 7"

The settlement pattern envisaged by the devisers of the plantation scheme was essentially one of an English model of rural settlement. The settlers were to live in towns and villages, fields were to be enclosed and English agricultural practices were to be used. For the most part, however, the reality was very different.
Though the regulations drawn up in 1610 specified that on each manor the tenants’ houses were to be built adjacent to the fortification on the estate, “as well for their mutual defence and strength, as for the making of villages and townships”, in reality relatively few Scottish owned estates had a nucleated settlement of any description.
Even those settlements that were denoted “town” or “village” in the official Plantation surveys were often unimpressive clusters of six to twelve houses. For the most part the settlers lived scattered across the countryside. For example, when Captain Pynnar visited the precinct of Boylagh and Bannagh in 1618-9 he was told of the number of settler families present, but “I saw but very few of them, for they dwelt far asunder, and had no time to come unto me”.
Various factors contributed to the absence of nucleated settlements form most of the Scottish-owned estates. For one thing, the fact that the Irish townland was used as the basis of leasing militated against the creation of villages. With individual proportions much larger in reality than on paper it was simply impractical for a tenant to live in a village and travel out each day to work on his holdings.
It is also true that the settlement pattern envisaged by those who devised the Plantation scheme was very different to the settlement pattern that the majority of Scottish settlers to Ulster were familiar with. Over much of Scotland, including the southwest where the majority of settlers originated, most rural dwellers lived in clusters of houses known as “ferme touns”. The land was largely open without hedges or dykes except around the farmsteads.

Reprinted completely from the pamphlet “The Story of the Scots, The Plantation of Ulster 1610-1630", Ulster-Scots Agency, Board of Ulster-Scots.

[x]keywords: Scotland, clans, history, periodical, diaspora
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# 44 - Ulster Scots • by Minnesota Scots - 01/01/2015 - 14:29 - - Minnesota - USA
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