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B-) by Minnesota Scots • "Scottish Ministries in Plantation Ulster-Part 12"

An important component of the movement of Scots into Ulster in the early seventeenth century was the migration of Protestant ministers. Dozens of them moved to the officially planted counties in the years after the inauguration of the Plantation scheme. Some were bishops, such as George Montgomery of Derry, Raphoe and Clogher, and Andrew Knox of Raphoe, but most were clergymen serving in parishes. For the most part the Reformation made little impact on the native population, and these clergymen largely ministered to the settler community.
Some of the bishops and ministers were important agents of change, encouraging settlement in their dioceses. For example, in 1632 Andrew Knox, bishop of Raphoe, claimed to have introduced 300 British families to his bishopric lands, the majority of which were almost certainly Scottish. James Spottiswood, bishop of Clogher, actively tried to develop Clogher as a town, acquiring a patent for a weekly market and encouraging tradesmen to settle there.
It was also possible for individual clergymen of ambition to use this period of rapid social mobility to make the most of opportunities for advancement. For instance, Humphrey Gailbraith, archdeacon of Clogher, acquired a landholding of his own in counties Donegal and Tyrone. Another Scottish minister who was even more successful in this regard was James Heygate, rector of Derryvullan. He made Clones in County Monaghan his home and here he was responsible for building a new church. Taking advantage from the Plantation scheme, he acquired an estate in the precinct of Clankelly in County Fermanagh. Heygate was later to be consecrated bishop of Kilfenora, a small diocese in County Down.
Presbyterianism does not appear to have made the same impact in the west of the province as it did in the east in the early seventeenth century, and there were not the same religious controversies in the officially planted counties as there were in Antrim and Down. While most of the settlers were Protestant a few Scottish settlers were Catholic. In the Strabane area, several of the Hamilton landlords and some of their tenants were Catholics, while we also know that the Laird of Forsyth moved to County Cavan to escape persecution in Scotland on account of his Catholicism.

Reprinted completely from the pamphlet “The Story of the Scots, The Plantation of Ulster 1610-1630", Ulster-Scots Agency, Board of Ulster-Scots.

[x]keywords: Scotland, clans, history, periodical, diaspora
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# 15 - Ulster Scots • by Minnesota Scots - 04/01/2015 - 00:43 - - Minnesota - USA
B-) by Minnesota Scots • "Scots and the Irish-Part 11"

The fate of the Irish in the Plantation is one of the most controversial aspects of the scheme. Under the rules of the Plantation the undertakers were forbidden to lease land to Irish tenants. As with so much else about the Plantation, the theory was very different from the practice. In the earliest stages of the Plantation, it was claimed that the Scots were leasing farms to Irish tenants and promising them that they would not be dispossessed.
The shortage of British tenants and the willingness of the Irish to pay higher rents in order to hold on to their lands meant that significant numbers of Irish continued to live on most of the undertakers’ proportions. On Sir John Hume’s estate in County Fermanagh the settlers actually complained in 1622 that they were in danger of being outbid for their farms by the Irish.
In the earliest stages of the Plantation we also find that there was a degree of cooperation in between native and newcomer. In 1611 the ”diseased” George Crawford, Lord Lefnoreis, was unable to develop his proportion in east Tyrone in person and so employed an Irish agent, Robert O’Rorke, to act on his behalf. Another native Irishman, Patrick groome O’Devin played a much more significant role in shaping his on locality in Strabane barony during these formative years, leasing an entire Plantation estate for its owner in 1615. O’Devin was one of a number of men who, once the top layer of the old Gaelic order had been removed, were able to rise to prominence in the new dispensation.
Undoubtedly there was considerable Irish resentment against the settlers and anger at the consequent dislocation to their Gaelic way of life. Although many Irishmen did receive lands in the Plantation, these were often far from where they had lived prior to the Plantation. One Gaelic poet described the newcomers as “a conceited and impure swarm… an excommunicated rabble-Saxons are there and Scotsmen”. It has been said that the Irish hated the Scots even more than the English, though some Irish saw the Scots as potential allies against the English.
Nonetheless by the 1620s local accommodations had been reached between the Scots and the Irish in most areas. The government also recognized that it could not force the undertakers to give up their Irish tenants and in 1628 an agreement was reached by which the British landlords were allowed to lease up to one quarter of their lands to native Irish tenants.

Reprinted completely from the pamphlet “The Story of the Scots, The Plantation of Ulster 1610-1630", Ulster-Scots Agency, Board of Ulster-Scots.

[x]keywords: Scotland, clans, history, periodical, diaspora
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# 14 - Ulster Scots • by Minnesota Scots - 03/18/2015 - 21:42 - - Minnesota - USA
B-) by Minnesota Scots • "Scots and the English-Part 10"

The English and Scottish undertakers were virtually equal partners in the Plantation scheme in terms of the acreages of the lands they received: 81,500 and 81,000, respectively. Together they were intended to be part of one “British Plantation” and it was hoped that “some course may be taken that the English and Scottish may be placed both near and woven one with another”. It was anticipated that markets and assizes would be places where English and Scots would meet and interact.
For the most part, however, the English and Scottish settlers lived largely separate lives. On many of the Scottish-owned estates, especially in the Foyle Valley, English tenants were virtually unknown. The major exception to this was in County Cavan where there was a much closer ratio of English to Scots on the Scottish-owned estates. On Sir James Craig’s estate there were actually more English settlers than Scots. On the other hand, many Scots lived and farmed successfully on English-owned estates, in some instances making up the majority of the British tenants. Though undoubtedly there were personal animosities between Englishmen and Scots, on the whole the relationships between the two groups were reasonably good.
Disputes did of course arise. In 1614 Lord Audley, an undertaker in the barony of Omagh, claimed that some Scottish settlers had tried to take his life following an accusation the he had spoken disparagingly of the Scottish nation. Audley denied this and added that not only did he have English tenants on his estate. “I have so many more of the Scotchmen besides which sheweth no malice, but my love and good opinion towards that nation and we all agree very well”.
In another instance from 1622 the English settlers on Sir Archibald Acheson’s estate in County Cavan complained of being badly treated by the landlord’s agent. However, these incidents do not appear to have been commonplace. It might be noted that there was a degree of intermarriage between English and Scots, especially among the landed elite. One interesting aside to the cultural and linguistic hiccups that could arise relates to the fact that in 1624 the Scots asked that an additional clerk of the Council in Dublin be appointed who could read Scottish handwriting as they were concerned that their petitions were either being misunderstood or ignored. A Scottish clerk was duly appointed.

Reprinted completely from the pamphlet “The Story of the Scots, The Plantation of Ulster 1610-1630", Ulster-Scots Agency, Board of Ulster-Scots.

[x]keywords: Scotland, clans, history, periodical, diaspora
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# 13 - Ulster Scots • by Minnesota Scots - 02/28/2015 - 10:33 - - Minnesota - USA
B-) by Minnesota Scots • "The Management of Scottish Estates-Part 9"

If a grantee of Plantation land was going to benefit financially from his undertaking he would have to manage his estate effectively to derive and income from it. He was not free to choose how to do this as he pleased but was expected to follow specific guidelines. Under the terms of their land grants, the undertakers were required to divide up their estates among tenants in a certain way. Furthermore, tenants were to be issued with written deeds that gave them security of tenure.
Relatively few of the undertakers fulfilled these conditions precisely. Some did not have enough British tenants to lease farms to, while others did not make out proper written leases to their tenants creating uncertainty among them. However, a number of the Scottish landlords did take care to ensure that their tenants were given proper leases for their holdings.
Agriculture was central to the rural economy. Crops – usually barley, oats and wheat – were grown and harvested and cattle and a few sheep were reared. The authorities were anxious that English agricultural practices were followed, hence the comment “I find here good tillage after the English manner” made by captain Pynnar about William Baillie’s estate in County Cavan. However, Pynnar lamented the lack of endeavour by the English and Irish to practice food husbandry and pursue agriculture seriously. He wrote: “were it not for the Scottish Tenants, which do plough in many places of the County, those Parts may starve”.
Scottish landlords also played an important role in introducing livestock to their estates. These were, in the main, cattle and horses, the later being important for ploughing. On the proportion of Sir James Cunningham in east Donegal there were by 1611 some 44 head of cattle “one plow of garrons and some tillage last harvest”. Lord Ochiltree brought 50 cows and 60 young heifers out of Scotland which were landed at Island Magee in County Antrim and then driven overland to east Tyrone.
Also part of the infrastructure of the estates were buildings such as mills, forges and barns. Most of the undertakers built mills on their estates. These were mainly corn mills though there were also a number of tuck mills for “fulling” woolen cloth. Uniquely, the Earl of Abercorn had built a “great brew house” in Strabane by 1611.

Reprinted completely from the pamphlet “The Story of the Scots, The Plantation of Ulster 1610-1630", Ulster-Scots Agency, Board of Ulster-Scots.

[x]keywords: Scotland, clans, history, periodical, diaspora
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# 12 - Ulster Scots • by Minnesota Scots - 02/09/2015 - 21:22 - - Minnesota - USA
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